The pre-emphasis improves the apparent signal-to-noise ratio by making better use of the channel's dynamic range. On playback, the player applies a de-emphasis filter to restore the frequency response curve to an overall flat one. Playback of such discs in a computer or 'ripping' to wave files typically does not take into account the pre-emphasis, so such files play back with a distorted frequency response. According to a Sunday Tribune interview,  the story is slightly more involved.
In , Philips owned PolyGram , one of the world's largest distributors of music. Sony did not yet have such a facility. If Sony had agreed on the mm disc, Philips would have had a significant competitive edge in the market. CDs would often be released with one or more bonus tracks, enticing consumers to buy the CD for the extra material.
However, attempts to combine double LPs onto one CD occasionally resulted in the opposite situation in which the CD would instead offer less audio than the LP. The emergence of minute CDs allowed for some double albums that were previously edited for length or packaged as double-CDs to be re-released on a single disc, such as by Prince in the case of the former and Tommy by the Who in the case of the latter.
However, most players can still accommodate the more closely spaced data if it is still within Red Book tolerances. In current practice, maximum CD playing time has crept higher by reducing minimum engineering tolerances.
The source audio data is divided into frames, containing twelve samples each six left and six right samples, alternating , for a total of bits 24 bytes of audio data per frame.
This stream of audio frames, as a whole, is then subjected to CIRC encoding, which segments and rearranges the data and expands it with error correction codes in a way that allows occasional read errors to be detected and corrected.
CIRC encoding interleaves the audio frames throughout the disc over several consecutive frames so that the information will be more resistant to burst errors. Therefore, a physical frame on the disc will actually contain information from multiple logical audio frames.
This process adds 64 bits of error correction data to each frame. After this, 8 bits of subcode or subchannel data are added to each of these encoded frames, which is used for control and addressing when playing the CD.
CIRC encoding plus the subcode byte generate bytes long frames, called "channel-data" frames. These frames are then modulated through eight-to-fourteen modulation EFM , where each 8-bit word is replaced with a corresponding bit word designed to reduce the number of transitions between 0 and 1.
This reduces the density of physical pits on the disc and provides an additional degree of error tolerance. Three "merging" bits are added before each bit word for disambiguation and synchronization. A bit word a bit pattern plus 3 merging bits is added to the beginning of each frame to assist with synchronization, so the reading device can locate frames easily. With this, a frame ends up containing bits of "channel data" which are decoded to only bits music.
The frames of channel data are finally written to disc physically in the form of pits and lands , with each pit or land representing a series of zeroes, and with the transition points—the edge of each pit—representing 1.
A Red Book-compatible CD-R has pit-and-land-shaped spots on a layer of organic dye instead of actual pits and lands; a laser creates the spots by altering the reflective properties of the dye. Due to the weaker error correction sector structure used on audio CDs and video CDs Mode 2 Form 2 than on data discs Mode 1 or Mode 2 Form 1 , C2 errors are not correctable and signify data loss. The audio data stream in an audio CD is continuous, but has three parts.
The main portion, which is further divided into playable audio tracks, is the program area. This section is preceded by a lead-in track and followed by a lead-out track. The lead-in and lead-out tracks encode only silent audio, but all three sections contain subcode data streams.
The lead-in's subcode contains repeated copies of the disc's Table of Contents TOC , which provides an index of the start positions of the tracks in the program area and lead-out.
The track positions are referenced by absolute timecode , relative to the start of the program area, in MSF format: minutes, seconds, and fractional seconds called frames.
Each timecode frame is one seventy-fifth of a second, and corresponds to a block of 98 channel-data frames—ultimately, a block of pairs of left and right audio samples. While they naturally would have liked more time to polish up their work, they managed to create something quite viable considering they were learning on the fly. Poe was tricked out of their copyright by a manager promising promotion and gigs, which of course never materialized.
They chose the band name because they liked how it sounded, not out of homage to the author. Later they recorded their own version of the Jaws soundtrack but their lone album stands as their testament to progressive rock. While not the greatest Italian prog masterpiece it is a very solid RPI recording and one that should grace the collection of serious RPI fans.
One of those "little known gems" to be sure. See below for a very warm, personal account of the band's history in detail, written by bassist Maggi. I Marco met Giorgio in high school where we spent a few years together.
One day, I went to his house and then to a practice place where we played some music. The bass player had just left the band so I jammed with them, messing around with the bass. I remember that day - playing while Giorgio yelled at me the notes to be played. Beppe insisted that I join the band playing the bass, although I never did before as I was really a guitar player. In no time, I fell in love with that instrument. While playing gigs as a cover band trying to make some needed money for instruments, our main focus and pleasure was to play our own music.
We played for free many years in the Milano interland at all kinds of festivals, indoor or outdoor, for the joy of playing our music and the excitement that came with it. In , I had the fortune or misfortune to be introduced to Gigi Fiume Menegaz In , I had the fortune or misfortune to be introduced to Gigi Fiume Menegazzi, a producer, who agreed to sign us and record our album.
At the beginning of September , we showed up at Trevisan Recording in Milano with zero experience in a recording studio and only three days time to complete our album. The first surprise was that we had to record separately first the drum and the bass only! The problem was that we never counted the measures; we always played together.
That was really weird and we were not ready for it, but we managed it very well. We had no time to waste! Right after beginning, the engineer told me, on the headphones, to use a pick because the bass was not clear enough. I had never used a pick playing the bass before.
As a consequence, I had to cut in half the speed of the bass line in "Prologo. That was good. After that, we started to add all the other instruments and at the end, the voice - just Giorgio. Still now, I do not know how Beppe was able to do so. The three days went by really fast, and at the end, we had to be content with what we did. Of course there were quite a few things that we would have liked to fix or redo. Another funny part during the mixing was when everybody was telling the engineer different things like "up the guitar now," "down the keyboard" or whatever until he kicked us out of the room!
After that, our manager convinced us to give away the copyright of our music in exchange for big promotions and concerts that never happened. We were young and trusting. We decided not to put our names on the album cover because we did not want to be a commercial band and just wanted the music to speak for us.
The album cover was Lello's idea. He found an old Mina 45 cover where there was a picture of a monkey. He took a picture of it and used the negative for the final cut. The name of the band came out of a dictionary when we were looking for a name.
Somebody opened a page and we read the name Edgar Allan Poe. We just liked the way it sounded, and we probably did not even know that much about the author. In the next few years, we recorded our own arrangement of the "Jaws" soundtrack, which was distributed for free at the opening night in Milano. We arranged a song for a singer Luca Simonelli from an old tune "Portami Tante Rose," and Giorgio the lead of the band wrote side B with us. When we recorded "Jaws," Roberto Bertazzi was playing guitar due to Beppe being in the army.
After Beppe came back, we were contacted by Sony who was interested in us, but the timing did not work. Giorgio had to leave for the army. When he came back, disco music was on the rise, and that was it. In fact his voice suits Shah Rukh Khan to the T and one now waits for their further collaborations. An all-rounder of a tune which makes one play this romantic number in loop , 'Mere Naam Tu' has a grand feel to it, especially the orchestra and the chorus that emerges at the end.
This was meant to be a huge inclusion in Zero considering the fact that it features Shah Rukh Khan and Salman Khan together. However, Salman has limited appearance in this song which is rendered by Sukhwinder Singh and Divya Kumar. A catchy number with a foot tapping appeal, this one has a 80s feel to it with a UP-Bihar set up.
Somehow the song doesn't cover an extra distance to emerge as a huge success and just about fits into the proceedings.
As for Katrina Kaif, she does get a special song indeed; what with 'Husn Parcham' pretty much paying homage to her 'husn'. Of course, this one with Bhoomi Trivedi as the lead singer and Raja Kumari adding with her rap is more class oriented but it a chartbuster number nonetheless. As a matter of fact after you have heard this one a couple of times, 'Husn Parcham' comes across as a tune that Vishal-Shekhar would have composed with ease.
Yet again, it is huge orchestra at play as Ajay-Atul brings on the kind of canvas that is expected out of them. A song about separation and pining heart that is rooting for true love, 'Ann Bann' is a very well written number that is sung quite well too by Kunal Ganjawala. It is after a long time that one hears the singer in a biggie and he does complete justice to 'Ann Bann' which comes as a crucial juncture in the film's narrative and adds good weight to the proceedings.
A well composed, tunes and sung situational number. Tanishk Bagchi takes over from this point on and is associated with as many as three songs.
For years I would sing this song aloud every time I got online and went to a bulletin board. I demand recompense for emotional damages. Yes, that's Geddy Lee, his voice modulated down a bit, doing a mid-song rap that rhymes "facts" with "gluteus max.
Even though there's some cool dissonant guitar fills, the spoken-word element is embarrassing and the call-and-response "Wound up and tight" "Soooooo tight!
It doesn't work and it is hella annoying. The "motion" of the title is made by my finger hitting fast-forward. By all accounts, the late John Rutsey was a nice fella, but tracks like this make you realize that the first album represents a band that's only two-thirds of the way there. It's an annoying riff and the melodic tricks are done far better on many other tunes of the era.
And the title is a pun? It's about an orchestra conductor with magical powers or something? Ugh, go away. It just sounds like notes for notes' sake. And lots of them. And a show with a low budget at that. Not good.
For that we issue demerits. Being forgettable is one thing, but being lazy is unusual for Rush. Rush covering Cream's cover of Robert Johnson's ur-blues text. When Cream did it, it was a psychedelic resurrection. Here, it's a very rare case of Rush being extremely uncool. I mean, singing about black holes and Rivendell and Prince By-Tor isn't cool, either, but it's so uncool that it's cool, you know?
This is just unnecessary, and if you ever do a side-by-side with Cream you'll see that Clapton in his prime versus Alex Lifeson goofing off in the studio is not even close. Still, this is a clunky song that's a little bit all over the place.
The strings, meant to sound triumphant, are just screechy. Kinda beneath Rush. Lifeson here mimics Jimmy Page just fine but Geddy Lee is still looking to find his own voice. Meanwhile, Neil Peart just hammers away like a construction worker looking to get home before the traffic gets bad. This Buffalo Springfield "anthem of the 60s" is too played-out. Even hearing "modern" covers of it feels like something in a cheesy, independent film.
There are some peculiar guitar sounds squiggling around in the background to make things more interesting, but, I gotta say, this is another rare Rush misfire. Not Rush's finest hour. The rest is another synth-heavy pop track from Rush's very hit-or-miss album that just bugs me. There is, I admit, a strong solo in here. Even bad Rush is good, we must remember! It isn't the Stones and it sure as hell isn't the Grateful Dead.
Everyone is being very cautious. Geddy hardly screams at all! It's 90 seconds of Geddy, practically cantorial, singing against some strings. Nothing much. Not the finest Rush song. It isn't an awful song, there's just nothing really going on. Vapor Trails is 67 minutes long. Hemispheres is See where I'm going with this? But for whatever reason it just doesn't come together.
A slog. Yeah, those guys were pretty good. This isn't an embarrassment; it just isn't the uncut gem we want their lost single to be. I never connected with the song in its original form and bar band Rush doesn't add too much to it. Not bad but not good. This bland ballad sounds like filler to my ears and reminds me of Pete Townshend's solo work from the time; hardly a ringing endorsement. Points for them sticking to their guns. But this song is a bore. There are all sorts of cutesy dog lyrics here.
Not really puns per se, but close enough. If someone like John Mayer covered it, it would be a hit. It toggles between a pleasant, clear melody, but then gets bogged down in not-very-interesting fast-rock mush. It doesn't quite work, but points for trying. A little reminiscent of "Nobody's Hero" from Counterparts , though.
That's not really an endorsement. I kid, it's fine. And a song about the joys of Secular Humanism is certainly a rarity. Good enough, I guess.
But, good lord, these lyrics are atrocious "I walk down vanity fair, mem-o-ry lane everywhere" and the hook is more than a tiny bit annoying. A vexing song. Not a good look. Nice nod to The Byrds' "Eight Miles High" during the solo, though, and you can hit Google if you don't get the connection there. If it didn't have that "modern rock" s production this could have fit right in on Signals -era Rush, especially with Peart's use of repetitive lyrics.
Weird tune, that Rush fans with patience can learn to love. Or, at least, very few of them are. It's just when you listen to them all at once you realize that during this era a lot of them really sound the same. Was Rush listening to the Smithereens? Who can tell? This song does not really work, but I bet they had fun.
Maybe she's wearing a flower in her hair, who knows? It wins points for chutzpah, but the rest is standard 80s synth rock. But at least it has a driving beat. Peart's typical "strength of the individual" lyrics are more creaky here than usual.
Hey, Rush can do anything. A simple song, but very catchy. Almost Fairport Convention-ish at times. But then it shifts gear into a classic Rush morse code riff, then a nice airy melody. But if that isn't a deal-breaker this is a strong late period rocker, which ends with some triumphant major chord bliss. That's normal for other artists, but for Rush? This mix of Chinese musical touchstones and synth-pop doesn't quite click, especially at such a slow tempo.
It's definitely an earworm and gets points for unique instrumentation even if there are some lackluster aspects at play. But still entertaining with a rat-tat-tat beat. Decent solo from Lifeson. He's still in Jimmy Page imitation mode, but the dude's got chops! Well produced! The guitar solo is solid. As I've established by now, Test For Echo is not Rush's finest hour, but on an island this song is all right.
Smack dab in the middle of one of Rush's best albums, and certainly in their best era, there's a tune that just bugs me for some reason.
Maybe it's the scratchy guitar or something, all I know is that when this one comes up I dive for the fast-forward button on an otherwise perfect collection. The guitar solo is more like what you'd hear with bands like Audioslave, but it works. Simple, but good. Peart's really going bananas on the drums, too. This is a solid number that is even better amidst the many Roll the Bones clunkers.
Dark groove passages break out into moments of airy, catchy melody. I dig it. It's basically a collection of grooves and loops with some squealing guitars.
A little corny, but it works, though "Cut to the Chase" off Counterparts will cover similar ground later and better. It's pure computer-enhanced pop and if you came to it unaware of the band's other work you'd be stunned that this once was a guitar-heavy prog-metal band. But, hey, life contains multitudes. It still has the requisite Rush edge, just not much of it.
Frankly, it feels a little beneath them. The chorus-break riff, which is pure Led Zep, is more than fine, however. A good song on a good album by a band that is better-than-good, but about to become great. One of the better The Who songs, great for singing along. Hold Your Fire lacks the edge found on Power Windows and replaces it with a reliance on synths and jangle.
But every now and then this still gets played on the radio and it isn't unwelcome. Stage Left A quick, live Lifeson noodle with interesting minor chord changes that, after 96 seconds, segues into "The Trees. Do you have good speakers? This will rattle floorboards. I like the refrain "I can't stop thinking big.
One wonders what a fourth one would have sounded like. There's a thickness here and too much business between the verses.Mar 24, · Zero, Finders Keepers, Many Rivers, Home on the Range, Gregs Eggs, Use Me. Lights by Fly by Light. Martin Fierro, Judge Murphy, Steve Kimock, Bobby Vega, Merl.